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Only factors retained in at least one of the four final multi-factor models are displayed.Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; ETS, environmental tobacco smoke; NSV, neonatal study visit at 1-month of age; ISV, infant study visit at 6-months of age.For each group, subjects are displayed in decreasing order of relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae.was used to test for compositional differences by early life factors, using both unweighted and weighted Uni Frac distance metrics.Further, latent groups defined by these factors explained additional variation, highlighting the importance of combinatorial effects.Our findings also have implications for studies investigating the impact of the early life gut microbiota on disease., underscoring the relationship between early life gut microbiota development and childhood health status.While these studies may have examined multiple pregnancy, sociocultural, and environmental factors, none have taken a multi-factor approach to studying their joint effects on gut microbiota composition, and none have been conducted in a racially and socioeconomically diverse birth cohort.

Interestingly, maternal reported race-ethnicity was associated with gut bacterial community composition in neonates (unweighted Uni Frac p = 0.002) and infants (unweighted Uni Frac p Multi-factor PERMANOVA composition models were constructed independently for neonates and infants (and by unweighted and weighted Uni Frac distance metrics) using a backwards variable selection approach.Among the factors tested, 19 of 49 (39%) were significantly associated with gut microbiome composition in the neonates, while 28 of 72 (39%) were significant in the infants (Fig.3; Supplementary Table S3); 17 of the 19 factors (90%) associated with neonatal gut bacterial communities were also significant in the infants.In the current study, we used 16S r RNA sequencing to profile the bacterial gut microbiota present in stool specimens gathered during the first year of life in a racially and socioeconomically diverse population-based birth cohort from the metropolitan Detroit area.Associations between a broad survey of pre- and post-natal environmental and sociocultural factors and early life gut microbiome composition were evaluated both individually and in multivariable models to identify factors that influence this critical period of microbial assemblage.

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We next identified how the factors retained in the final multi-factor models associated with differences in taxonomic relative abundances with zero-inflated negative binomial models, adjusting for multiple comparisons using FDR. Among neonates, both current and exclusive breastfeeding were associated with decreased abundance of Roseburia taxa; current breastfeeding was associated with an increased abundance of Staphylococcus and Prevotella taxa, while exclusive breastfeeding was associated with an increased abundance of Streptococcus taxa.

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